Paracelsus, Theophrastus - extensive biographical entry on the physician and about alchemist Paraclete - another name for the holy Ghost. Paradise, terrestrial - the name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Paralipomenon, books of - two books of the bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the captivity. Parallelism - the balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Paray-le-monial - a town in France paré, ambroise - french surgeon (1517-1590) Parents - considers the duties of parents toward their children, and vice versa paris - archdiocese and city in France paris, University of - famous and ancient university in France parish -. 1592 Pasch - great Jewish holiday paschal i, pope - pope who reigned from 817 to 824 Paschal ii, pope - pope who reigned from Paschal iii (Antipope) - second antipope in the time of Pope Alexander iii (d. 1168) Paschal Candle - a large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy saturday paschal Lamb - a lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the passover celebration Passionists. Passion of Jesus Christ - devotion to the sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated in His death upon the Cross Passion of Jesus Christ in the four Gospels - four separate accounts of the passion of Our Lord, each of which supplements the others Passion. Passions - motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend towards the attainment of some real or apparent good, or the avoidance of some evil. Passover - great Jewish holiday pasteur, louis - founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics (1822-1895) Pastor - a priest who has the cure of souls, that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the.
Pantheism - the false theory according to mother which God and the world are one. Papacy, the - the ecclesiastical system in which the pope governs the catholic Church as its supreme head; also, the papal influence viewed as a political force in history. Pápago Indians - an important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock. Papal Elections - the method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. Papal Mint - history of the coins, papal States - consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler. Papias, saint - thorough essay on what is known of this bishop, called. Irenaeus 'a hearer of John.' Also an exposition of the writings of Papias, who died around 120. Parables - a comparison, or a parallel, by which one thing is used to illustrate another.
Pall, funeral - a black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased person. Pallium - a circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, and having two hanging pendants. Palm in Christian Symbolism - a christian symbol of victory. Palm Sunday - the sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy week. Pancratius and Domitilla, nereus and Achilleus, saints - roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 may. Pange lingua gloriosi - article on the two hymns of this name. The second is by Thomas Aquinas. The first is 'generally credited' to venantius Fortunatus, though some believe it is the work of Claudianus Mamertus. Panpsychism - a philosophical theory which holds that everything in the universe, inorganic and organic, has some degree of consciousness.
Pasteur and Lister: a chronicle of Scientific Influence
Please help support the mission of New Advent and day get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the catholic Encyclopedia, church Fathers, summa, bible and more all for only.99. This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the new Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for P or use the search box at the top of this page. Pachomius, saint - hermit who founded a cenobitical community,. Some speculation braille on how and why. Pachomius came up with the idea of the cenobitical life.
Pacioli, lucas - tuscan mathematician (d. Padua - diocese in northern Italy, paganism - paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by god, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, judaism, and Islam. Painting, religious - painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. Palestrina, giovanni pierluigi da - the greatest composer of liturgical music of all time (1514-1594). Pall - a heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque at other services for the dead.
There was rigorous attention to every detail. Flasks opened in the paris streets grew organisms abundantly, those opened in the high mountains remained sterile with rare exception. To his own satisfaction, and that of the lAcadÃmie des Sciences, pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms appeared in flasks of sterile culture medium only when contaminated by exposure to contaminated air from the outside, and never by spontaneous generation. In 1861 he summarized his findings in the essay sur les corpuscules organisÃs qui existent dans latmosphÃ¨re. Examen de la doctrine des gÃnÃrations spontanÃes. (On the organized bodies which exist in the air.
Examination of the doctrine of spontaneous generation.). Pasteur considered the matter closed. Nevertheless, the dispute dragged on and we can detect his exasperation in the tone of his lecture at the sorbonne in 1864 when he outlined the history of the controversy and concluded by saying: Gentlemen, i could point to that liquid (in the flask. And I wait, i watch, i question it, begging it to recommence for me the beautiful spectacle of the first creation. But it is dumb, dumb since these experiments were begun several years ago; it is dumb because i have kept it from the only thing man cannot produce, from the germs which float in the air, from Life, for Life is a germ and. Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow of this simple experiment. No, there is now no circumstance known in which it can be affirmed that microscopic beings came into the world without germs, without parents similar to themselves. Those who affirm it have been duped by illusions, by ill-conducted experiments, spoilt by errors that they either did not perceive or did not know how to avoid. Meanwhile, pouchet continued to generate life in his sterile cultures.
Germ theory of disease - wikipedia
According to this theory, the ghostwriter microorganisms associated with fermentation were the product and not the cause of the process. The ancient and hardy doctrine of spontaneous generation, rooted in the speculations of the Greek philosopher Aristotle of the fourth century. C., was strongly supported by fãlix ArchimÃ¨de pouchet (1800-1872 director of the museum of Natural History in rouen, a french city northeast of Paris. In a paper read before the paris Academy of Sciences in 1858 he claimed to be able to produce spontaneous generation at will in a sterile culture medium. Pasteur, unerring in his sense that this stubborn doctrine required the coup de grace as only he could administer it, was unwilling to let pouchets claim go unchallenged. Therefore, he began an extensive series of meticulous experiments in 1859, the year of Darwins publication of the Origin of Species and the year that saw the opening of the first medical school on the pacific coast by Elias cooper. Pasteurs experiments took him from the crowded streets of Paris to the Alps, gathering samples of air in glass flasks containing sterile culture medium.
alcoholic fermentation, he went on to disprove the theory by demonstrating that yeast is the living agent of the process. He reported his findings in a mãmoire sur la fermentation appelÃe lactique (Memoir on the fermentation of lactic acid) in 1857, and a mãmoire sur la fermentation alcoholique (Memoir on the fermentation of alcohol) in 1860. Pasteurs experiments proved conclusively that fermentation is caused by microorganisms. In so doing, he provided a biological explanation for a phenomenon generally accepted as a chemical reaction. Furthermore, he established that specific microorganisms are responsible for specific biological processes and, by inference, that specific germs may be the agents of specific diseases. While pasteur thus laid the foundation for the germ theory of disease, validation of the theory awaited the test of clinical application soon to be undertaken by the British surgeon, joseph Lister. Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation, pasteur knew that his concept of biological activity by microorganisms was incompatible with the doctrine of spontaneous generation that still had many adherents. In his day the belief persisted that microscopic life forms could be spontaneously generated in putrefying organic material.
Fortunately for posterity he decided to go. Bigos distillery and have a look at his vats. He found that, part of the time and for no apparent reason, the alcoholic fermentation process for which yeast was the ferment began to produce lactic thesis acid, an acid usually obtained from sour milk. Pasteur decided that there were in fact two kinds of fermentation, each independent of the other, going on. Bigos vats: alcoholic fermentation due to yeast and lactic acid fermentation due to the lactic acid bacillus. When the alcoholic fermentation turned sour it was due to the production of lactic acid by a contaminant, the lactic acid bacillus. Pasteur discovered and isolated the bacillus, and believed that the air was the source of the contamination.
Essay on Positive thinking Complete Essay for Class
Excerpted from Stanford University School of Medicine and the Predecessor Schools: An Historical Perspective by john. The germ Theory, in 1854 Pasteur, then 32 years of age, was appointed Professor of Chemistry and dean of the newly organized FacultÃ des Sciences in the city of Lille, the richest center of industrial activity in the north of France. When extolling the marvelous discoveries of modern science in his opening speech to the students on 7 December, the young dean reminded them that chance only favours the mind which is prepared. These words, that have echoed ever since through the halls of academe, are a key to pasteurs own achievements. His experiments were always carefully essay planned and decisive, but it was his genius to make serendipitous observations of historic significance while solving practical problems such as the problem brought to him by a certain Monsieur Bigo, the father of one of his students. In the summer of 1856. Bigo came to consult Pasteur concerning the difficulty he was having with the alcoholic fermentation of beet sugar in his distillery. Something was going wrong with the process and the alcohol was turning sour. Pasteur was at first hesitant to undertake a project outside his school.